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US4578019: Ram air turbine

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Filing Information

Inventor(s) William F. Safarik ·
Assignee(s) The Garrett Corporation ·
Attorney/Agent(s) Terry L. Miller ·
Primary Examiner Powell, Jr.; Everette A. ·
Application Number US6383084
Filing date 05/28/1982
Issue date 03/25/1986
Predicted expiration date 03/25/2003
U.S. Classifications 416/1  · 416/32  ·
International Classifications F01D 702  ·
Kind CodeA
International Classifications 4161;35;32;41 A;151;152;47;43;48;160;162;155 ·
23 Claims, No Drawings


Abstract

Apparatus and methods for adjusting the pitch of a fluid reactive blade member carried upon a rotor in response to a speed difference between the rotor and a reference speed shaft.

Independent Claims | See all claims (23)

  1. 1. The method of pivotally adjusting the relative pitch of a fluid energy reactive blade member carried upon a rotor member comprising the steps of providing a reference speed shaft, coupling said reference speed shaft to said blade member via linkage means rotatable with said rotor member, pivoting said blade member via said linkage means in response to a rotational speed difference between said reference speed shaft and said rotor member, and providing a centrifugally responsive apparatus in association with said linkage means for pivotally adjusting the pitch of said blade member in response to rotation of said rotor member.
  2. 8. The method of controlling the rotational speed of a rotor member carrying a fluid energy reactive blade member thereon, said blade member being pivotally disposed upon said rotor member to define a pitch angle and being in energy exchange relation with a fluid to exert a first torque compelling or resisting rotation of said rotor member, said rotor member being coupled to a device exerting a second torque thereon opposing said first torque to respectively resist or compel rotation of said rotor member, said method comprising the steps of providing a rotatable reference speed shaft, coupling said reference speed shaft via linkage means with said blade member to pivot the latter, and adjusting the pitch angle of said blade member via said linkage means in response to a rotational speed difference between said rotor member and said reference speed shaft to match said first torque with said second torque; said coupling step including providing said linkage means with speed reduction apparatus providing a relatively great ratio of torque multiplication from said reference speed shaft to said blade member, and rotating said speed reduction apparatus in unison with said rotor member so that a rotational speed difference between the latter and said reference speed shaft causes pivotal movement of said blade member, and providing centrifugally responsive means rotating with said rotor member and cooperating with said linkage means to pivotally bias said blade member in a first direction in response to rotation of said rotor member.
  3. 10. In a ram air turbine for use aboard an aircraft, said ram air turbines including a rotational power absorbing device, a rotor member communicating with the free stream of relatively moving air surrounding said aircraft in flight, first means coupling said rotor member and said power absorbing device for rotation in unison, a multitude of aerodynamically reactive turbine blades pivotally carried upon said rotor member and pivotal relative thereto to define a variable pitch angle to rotationally drive said rotor member, the method of controlling the rotational speed of said rotor member comprising the steps of providing a rotatable reference speed shaft, coupling said reference speed shaft to said multitude of blade members via second coupling means rotatable with said rotor member to pivot said turbine blades, and adjusting the relative pitch defined by said turbine blades to maintain a predetermined rotational speed ratio between said rotor member and said reference speed shaft, employing a mechanical apparatus as a portion of said second coupling means, and causing said mechanical apparatus to provide a relatively high ratio of speed reduction and torque multiplication between said reference speed shaft and said multitude of turbine blades, employing an epicyclic gear train as a portion of said mechanical apparatus, disposing said epicyclic gear train remotely from rotor member, employing a centrifugally responsive apparatus rotating with said rotor member and cooperating with said second coupling means to bias said turbine blades in a first pivotal direction in response to rotation of said rotor member, and providing for resilient storage of mechanical energy within a portion of said second coupling means intermediate of said epicyclic gear train and the point of cooperation of said centrifugally responsive apparatus with said second coupling means.
  4. 14. In an aircraft propeller pitch control system including an engine driving a propeller carrying variable pitch propeller blades, the method of controlling the operating speed of said engine by adjusting the pitch of said propeller blades to match the torque output of said engine with the torque absorption of said propeller, said method comprising the steps of providing a reference speed shaft, and coupling said reference speed shaft with said propeller blades via coupling means to adjust the pitch of said blades in response to a speed difference between said reference speed shaft and said propeller, said coupling means in its entirety rotating with said propeller and reference speed shaft, employing an epicyclic gear train as a portion of said coupling means, disposing said gear train remote from said propeller, and coupling said gear train with said propeller blade via an elongate torsionally flexible shaft defining a part of said coupling means, disposing a centrifugally responsive apparatus within said propeller for rotation therewith, and employing said centrifugally responsive apparatus to bias said propeller blade toward a course pitch position in response to rotation of said propeller.
  5. 17. In a ram air turbine having a rotor carrying a turbine blade which is pivotal to vary the pitch angle defined thereby, said rotor being coupled with a power absorbing device, and means for pivoting said turbine blade, the method of controlling the rotational speed of said rotor comprising the steps of utilizing a reference speed shaft operatively coupled with said pivoting means to vary said pitch angle in response to a rotational speed difference between said rotor and said reference speed shaft, and employing centrifugally responsive apparatus rotating with said rotor to bias said turbine blade toward a coarse pitch position.
  6. 20. The method of controlling the speed of rotation of a rotor carrying a fluid energy reactive blade member which is pivotal relative to said rotor, said method comprising the steps of:providing a reference speed shaft;providing linkage means coupling said blade member with said reference speed shaft for pivoting the former in response to a speed differential between the latter and said rotor;rotating said reference speed shaft in a first direction;rotating said rotor in said first direction;arranging said linkage means to pivot said blade member in a sense tending to match rotor speed with reference shaft speed;providing apparatus in cooperation with said linkage means for biasing said blade member in opposition to said linkage means as a function of rotor speed; andproviding an energy storage portion in said linkage means between said reference speed shaft and the point where said biasing apparatus cooperates with said linkage means.
  7. 22. In apparatus having a first rotatable power producing or power absorbing device drivingly coupled with a rotor, said rotor carrying a fluid energy reactive blade member thereon, said blade member being pivotal to define a pitch angle so as to assist or resist rotation of said rotor by interaction with a fluid, the method of maintaining the speed of rotation of said rotor substantially constant despite variation both of the power output or power absorption of said device and of the interaction of said blade member with said fluid, said method comprising the steps of providing a reference speed motor having a rotatable reference speed shaft, drivingly coupling said reference speed shaft with said device via shaft means having first and second relatively rotatable portions, providing means operatively associated with said first and second shaft portions for pivoting said blade member to adjust the pitch angle defined thereby in response to relative rotation of said first and second shaft portions, and operating said reference speed motor to rotate one of said first and second shaft portions at a substantially constant speed; and further including the process of reducing transient rotational speed changes resultfrom variation of said power output or power absorption of said device or from variation of said interaction of said blade member with said fluid, said transient reducing process including the steps of providing centrifugally responsive means in association with said blade pivoting means for yieldably biasing said blade member in response to rotation of said rotor toward a feathered null position wherein said blade member is not interactive with said fluid, providing resilient energy storage means interposed in said one shaft portion between the coupling thereof with said shaft of said reference speed motor and said association of said one shaft portion with said blade pivoting means for biasing said blade member away from null position, and transferring energy to or from said storage means in response to a rotational speed change to match the bias of the latter with that of said centrifugally responsive means and pivot said blade member in a direction to reduce said rotational speed change.
  8. 23.23. The method of making a ram air turbine comprising the steps of:providing a rotor drivingly connectable to a torque absorbing device;providing turbine blades pivotal upon said rotor to define a pitch angle;providing a rotatable reference speed shaft;coupling said reference speed shaft to said turbine blades via linkage arranged to pivot the latter in response to a rotational speed differential between said reference speed shaft and said rotor;providing centrifugally responsive means for biasing said turbine blades toward a feathered null position in response to rotation of said rotor; andproviding resilient energy storage means in said linkage.

References Cited

U.S. Patent Documents

Document NumberAssigneesInventorsIssue/Pub Date
US2026814 UNITED AIRCRAFT CORP Caldwell et al. Jan 1936
US2140718 HANS REISSNER Reissner Dec 1938
US2160324 ECLIPSE AVIAT CORP Berges May 1939
US2307334 ELDON PEEK JESSE Peek Jan 1943
US2314610 DAY PHILLIP E Day Mar 1943
US2330342 DWELLE THOMAS W Dwelle Sep 1943
US2370135 ENGINEERING & RES CORP Berliner Feb 1945
US2399685 MCCOY HOWARD M McCoy May 1946
US2456746 AVEN MFG CORP Snader Dec 1948
US2456747 AVCO MFG CORP Snader et al. Dec 1948
US2456748 AVCO MFG CORP Snader Dec 1948
US2782601 GEN MOTORS CORP Hamilton Feb 1957
US2874787 GEN MOTORS CORP Battenberg et al. Feb 1959
US2967572 GARRETT CORP Breaux et al. Jan 1961
US2986219 MARQUARDT CORP Boardman, Jr. et al. May 1961
US3063503 GEN MOTORS CORP Blackburn Nov 1962
US3079531 HAVILLAND AIRCRAFT COMPANY DE Tugwood Feb 1963
US3154150 GEN MOTORS CORP Dhonau Oct 1964
US3672788 ROLLS ROYCE Ellinger Jun 1972
US4047842 Curtiss-Wright Corporation Avena et al. Sep 1977

Foreign Patent Documents

Document NumberAssigneesInventorsIssue/Pub Date
DE2834164HUELLMANN FRITZFeb 1980
DE3031390VOITH GETRIEBE KGFeb 1982
FR1050246NEYRPIC ETSJan 1954
FR2313576BUYS VICTORDec 1976
GB546995DEHAVILLAND AIRCRAFTAug 1942

Patent Family