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US5346565: Water barrier of water-swellable clay sandwiched between interconnected layers of flexible fabric needled together using a lubricant

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Filing Information

Inventor(s) Alec W. White ·
Assignee(s) American Colloid Company ·
Attorney/Agent(s) Marshall, O'Toole, Gerstein, Murray & Borun ·
Primary Examiner James C. Cannon ·
Application Number US7986112
Filing date 12/04/1992
Issue date 09/13/1994
Predicted expiration date 09/13/2011
U.S. Classifications 156/71  · 405/129.75  · 112/441  · 112/475.01  · 210/502.1  · 210/503  · 210/507  · 210/508  · 210/679  · 210/688  · 210/807  · 210/901  · 210/911  · 28/112  · 405/107  · 405/109  · 405/115  · 112/420  · 405/270  · 405/53  · 428/120  · 428/193  · 428/206  · 428/340  · 442/240  · 442/242  · 442/256  · 442/383  · 442/386  · 52/169.1  · 52/309.13  · 52/309.14  · 55/528  · 55/DIG.9  ·
International Classifications B01D 3900  ·
Kind CodeA
International Classifications 28112 ·
Related U.S. Application DataThis is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 07/628,947, filed Dec. 17, 1990, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,174,231.
39 Claims, No Drawings


Abstract

A multi-layer article of manufacture includes an intermediate layer of a water-swellable colloidal clay, such as bentonite, sandwiched between two layers of flexible sheet or fabric material wherein the two flexible layers of sheet or fabric material are structurally interconnected through the intermediate clay layer, such as by needle punching, after lubrication of the clay with a liquid, such as water, to interconnect fibers of one fabric layer to the other fabric layer at spaced locations over essentially the entire inner surface areas of both sheet or fabric material layers.

Independent Claims | See all claims (39)

  1. 1. A method of preventing water from contacting a structure comprising installing a multi-layer article of manufacture against said structure, said multi-layer article including first and second sheet material layers having a layer of water-swellable clay therebetween, said first and second sheet material layers secured together on opposite sides of the clay layer by needle punching or sewing to interconnect fibers from one flexible sheet material layer to the other flexible sheet material layer, thereby confining the clay therebetween after contacting the clay with a liquid lubricant, in an amount in the range of about 0.1% to about 40% based on the dry weight of the clay layer.
  2. 3. A method of preventing water from contacting a structure comprising installing a multi-layer article of manufacture against said structure, said multi-layer article including first and second sheet material layers having a layer of water-swellable clay therebetween, said first and second sheet material layers secured together on opposite sides of the clay layer by needle punching or sewing to interconnect fibers from one flexible sheet material layer to the other flexible sheet material layer, thereby confining the clay therebetween after contacting the clay with a liquid in an amount of about 0.1% to about 20% based on the dry weight of the water-swellable clay layer.
  3. 5. A multi-layer article of manufacture useful as a waterproofing material comprising a pair of flexible sheet material layers having a layer of powdered or granular bentonite clay sandwiched therebetween, said pair of sheet material layers structurally interconnected one to the other by sewing or needle punching to interconnect fibers from flexible sheet material layer to the other flexible sheet material layer, thereby containing the clay layer therebetween after first wetting the clay layer with a lubricant in an amount in the range of about 0.1% to about 40% lubricant based on the dry weight of the clay layer.
  4. 15. A multi-layer article of manufacture comprising a pair of flexible sheet material layers having a contaminant interacting layer of material sandwiched therebetween, said contaminant-interacting layer capable of interacting with water-soluble contaminants from water contacting said layer, said pair of fabric layers structurally interconnected one to the other with continuous, elongated fibers to confine the contaminant-interacting layer therebetween, after wetting at least one of the surfaces of the layer of contaminant-interacting material with a liquid lubricant in an amount in the range of about 0.1% to about 40% based on the dry weight of the contaminant-interacting layer.
  5. 23. A multi-layer article of manufacture useful as a waterproofing material comprising a pair of flexible sheet material layers having a layer of powdered or granular clay sandwiched therebetween, said pair of sheet material layers consisting essentially of fibers selected from the group consisting of polypropylene, polyester, nylon, propylene-ethylene copolymers, polypropylene-polyamide copolymers, and combinations thereof, said sheet material layers structurally interconnected one to the other by sewing or needle punching to interconnect fibers from one flexible sheet material layer to the other flexible sheet material layer, to confine the clay therebetween after first wetting the clay surface directly beneath one of the sheet material layers with a liquid in an amount of about 0.1% to about 40% based on the dry weight of the clay layer for lubrication.
  6. 30. A multi-layer article of manufacture comprising a pair of flexible sheet material layers having a water-swellable clay layer sandwiched therebetween, said pair of sheet material layers consisting essentially of fibers selected from the group consisting of polypropylene, polyester, nylon, propylene-ethylene copolymers, polypropylene-polyamide copolymers, and combinations thereof, said sheet material layers structurally interconnected one to the other with continuous, elongated fibers to confine the clay layer therebetween, after wetting at least one of the surfaces of the clay layer with a liquid in an amount in the range of about 0.1% to about 40% based on the dry weight of the clay layer.
  7. 32. A method of manufacturing a multi-layer water barrier including a lower layer of fabric, an upper layer of fabric and an intermediate layer of a powdered or granular water-swellable bentonite clay secured between the fabric layers by needle punching or sewing, the improvement comprising applying about 0.1% to about 40%, by dry weight of said bentonite clay layer, of a lubricant to the bentonite clay layer to lubricate the penetration of needles through the layer of clay, while interconnecting fibers from one flexible fabric layer to the other flexible fabric layer, thereby reducing needle wear and friction and needle breakage and providing consistent, effective securing of the upper and lower fabric layers surrounding a uniform thickness of bentonite clay.
  8. 36. A method of manufacturing a multi-layer water barrier including a lower layer of fabric, and an upper layer of fabric wherein said fabrics consist essentially of fibers selected from the group consisting of polypropylene, polyester, nylon, propylene-ethylene copolymers, polypropylene-polyamide copolymers, and combinations thereof, and an intermediate layer of a powdered or granular water-swellable bentonite clay secured between the fabric layers by needle punching or sewing, the improvement comprising applying a liquid to the abrasive material in an amount in the range of about 10% to about 20% based on the dry weight of the clay layer to lubricate the penetration of needles through the layer of bentonite clay, to interconnect fibers from one flexible fabric layer to the other flexible fabric layer, thereby reducing needle wear and friction and needle breakage and providing consistent, effective securing of the upper and lower fabric layers surrounding a uniform thickness of said bentonite clay.

References Cited

U.S. Patent Documents

Document NumberAssigneesInventorsIssue/Pub Date
US4423109 Rogers Corporation Greenman et al. Dec 1983
US4424248 Breveteam S.A. Tesch et al. Jan 1984
US4495235 Tesch Jan 1985
US4530869 Tesch Jul 1985
US4565468 Crawford Jan 1986
US4603075 Texon, Inc. Dergarabedian et al. Jul 1986
US4622260 TESCH G H Tesch Nov 1986
US4837085 MCGROARTY BRYAN M McGroarty Jun 1989
US4849273 Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company Skinner et al. Jul 1989
US5112665 American Colloid Company Alexander May 1992
US5174231 American Colloid Company White Dec 1992
US5237945 American Colloid Company White Aug 1993

Foreign Patent Documents

Document NumberAssigneesInventorsIssue/Pub Date
CA1247347TESCH G HDec 1988
EP0071213Gnter TESCHFeb 1983
EP0278419NAUE-FASERTECHNIK GMBH & CO. KGAug 1988
EP0379466Eberle Landschaftsbau AGJul 1990
GB2151912AJul 1985
GB2184195BMay 1988
GB2202185BOct 1990