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US5869004: Methods and apparatus for in situ concentration and/or dilution of materials in microfluidic systems

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Filing Information

Inventor(s) John Wallace Parce · Anne R. Kopf-Sill ·
Assignee(s) Caliper Technologies Corp. ·
Attorney/Agent(s) Matthew B. Murphy ·
Primary Examiner Robert Warden ·
Assistant Examiner Fariborz Moazzam ·
Application Number US8871338
Filing date 06/09/1997
Issue date 02/09/1999
Predicted expiration date 06/09/2017
U.S. Classifications 422/100  · 422/681  ·
International Classifications B01L 300  ·
Kind CodeA
International Classifications 42281;100;101;63;68.1;82;82.01;58 ·
44 Claims, No Drawings


Abstract

The present invention is generally directed to methods, apparatus and systems for use in performing in situ dilution or concentration of a particular subject material in a microfluidic device or system. These methods and apparatus may generally be integrated with other microfluidic operations and/or systems, to perfom a number of different manipulations, wherein dilution or concentration, carried out within the context of the microfluidic device or system, is just one part.

Independent Claims | See all claims (44)

  1. 1. A microfluidic system for diluting a material in a microfluidic device, the system comprising:a microfluidic device having at least a first main channel disposed therein, said main channel having at least one microscale cross-sectional dimension;at least a first source of said material in fluid communication with said main channel at a first point alone a length of said main channel;at least a first diluent source in fluid communication with said main channel at a second point along said length of said main channel;at least a first reservoir in fluid communication with said main channel at a third point along said length of said main channel;at least a second diluent source in fluid communication with said main channel at a fourth point along said length of said main channel; anda fluid direction system for delivering diluent and material to said main channel from said first diluent source and said material source, respectively, combining said first diluent with said material to form first diluted material, transporting a first portion of said first diluted material out of said main channel into said first reservoir, a second portion of said first diluted material remaining in said main channel, and for second delivering diluent from said second diluent source into said main channel to mix with said second portion of first diluted material.
  2. 20. A microfluidic system for continuously diluting a material in a microfluidic device, the system comprising:a microfluidic device comprising a first channel disposed therein;a source of said material in fluid communication with said first channel; anda continuous dilution module, said dilution module comprising:a diluent source in fluid communication with said first channel at a first point and a first reservoir in fluid communication with said first channel at a second point; anda fluid direction system for continuously delivering diluent to said first channel to be combined with said material to form first diluted material, and continuously transporting at least a portion of said first diluted material from said first channel to said first reservoir.
  3. 23. A microfluidic system comprising:a first main channel and a second main channel;a first diluter channel and a second diluter channel, said first and second diluter channels having first and second ends, wherein said first ends of said first and second channels are in fluid communication with said first main channel, and said second ends of said first and second diluter channels are in fluid communication with said second main channel at said second ends, and wherein said first diluter channel further comprises a diluent reservoir disposed therein;an electrical control system for applying a voltage gradient between said first main channel and said second main channel.
  4. 24. A microfluidic system for concentrating a material in a microfluidic device, comprising:a microfluidic device having a first channel disposed therein, said first channel having first and second fluid regions disposed therein, said first fluid region comprising said material and having a first conductivity, and said second fluid regions being disposed within said first channel on both ends of said first fluid region and having a second conductivity, said second conductivity being greater than said first conductivity; andan electroosmotic fluid direction system for transporting said first and second fluid regions along said first channel.
  5. 32. A method for in situ dilution of a material in a microfluidic device, comprising:combining a first volume of said material with a first volume of diluent in a first microscale channel to form a first diluted material;transporting at least a first portion of said first diluted material out of said first channel; anddelivering a second volume of diluent from a second diluent source to said microscale channel and combining said second volume of diluent with a second portion of said first diluted material to form a second diluted material.
  6. 41. A method for in situ dilution of a material in a microfluidic device, comprising:combining a first volume of said material with a first volume of diluent in a first region of a microfluidic device to form a first diluted material;transporting a first portion of said first diluted material into a second region of said microfluidic device; anddelivering a second volume of diluent from a second diluent source to said second region and combining said second volume of diluent with a second portion of said first diluted material to form a second diluted material.
  7. 44.44. A method for the in situ concentration of a material in a microscale channel, comprising:introducing a first fluid containing said material into a microscale channel to provide a first fluid region in said channel, wherein said first fluid has a first conductivity, and wherein said first fluid region is bounded by second and third fluid regions, said second and third fluid regions having a second conductivity, said second conductivity being greater than said first conductivity; andapplying a voltage gradient along a length of said microscale channel whereby said first, second and third fluid regions are transported along said length of said channel with a first electroosmotic mobility, and whereby said material has an electrophoretic mobility different from said first electroosmotic mobility whereby said material is concentrated at or near one end of said first fluid region.

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