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US6085549: Membrane process for producing carbon dioxide

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Filing Information

Inventor(s) Paul A. Daus · Charles R. Pauley · John W. Koenst · Fred Coan ·
Assignee(s) Messer Griesheim Industries, Inc. ·
Attorney/Agent(s) Carr & Storm, L.L.P. ·
Primary Examiner Ronald Capossela ·
Application Number US9057126
Filing date 04/08/1998
Issue date 07/11/2000
Predicted expiration date 04/08/2018
U.S. Classifications 62/624  · 62/929  · 62/922  · 95/51  ·
International Classifications F25J 100  ·
Kind CodeA
International Classifications 62624;922;929 ·
55 Claims, No Drawings


Abstract

A process for producing carbon dioxide from a gas stream containing same pretreats the incoming raw gas to remove contaminants and particularly to protect degradation of the membranes utilized for separation. The temperatures of the various gas streams are carefully controlled to reduce water from the stream. By-product and other gas streams of the process are recycled in order to increase efficiency by utilizing the heating or cooling properties of the streams. In addition, streams containing minor portions of carbon dioxide are returned to the system for recovery.

Independent Claims | See all claims (55)

  1. 1. A process for separating carbon dioxide from a raw gas stream containing carbon dioxide, comprising:STEP 1 removing sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter, and water from the gas stream by direct contact cooling, and passing the gas through heat exchanges and water knockouts;STEP 2 passing the resultant gas of step 1 through first and second membranes and recycling a nonpermeate gas stream from the second membrane into an inlet of the first membrane;STEP 3 treating the permeate gas stream from the second membrane by progressively deep cooling, pressurizing, cooling, deep cooling and passing said permeate gas stream through a water knockout;STEP 4 passing the treated permeate gas from the knockout progressively through first and second gas-gas heat exchanger, a condenser, and a distillation column;STEP 5 passing a first portion of the gas of step 4 through the distillation column in contact with and countercurrently to a stripping vapor gas passing upwardly through said column;STEP 6 progressively passing a second portion of the gas of step 5 through the second and then the first gas-gas heat exchanger, splitting the stream, passing one portion to the desiccant dryer for regeneration of the dryer;STEP 7 discharging and recovering a carbon dioxide stream from the distillation column; andSTEP 8 recovering vapors from the carbon dioxide stream of step 7 and recycling said vapors into at least one of the first and second membranes.
  2. 32. A process for separating carbon dioxide from a raw gas stream containing carbon dioxide in an amount, on a dry basis, in the range of about 8 percent to about 85 per cent, comprising:STEP 1 passing the raw gas stream through a direct contact cooler and removing sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter;STEP 2 cooling the gas by passing the gas through a recycle heat exchanger and a heat exchanger;STEP 3 dewatering the cooled gas by passing it through a water knockout;STEP 4 pressurizing the gas and cooling the gas to a temperature sufficient to prevent water from condensing upon subsequent compression;STEP 5 compressing the gas;STEP 6 cooling the gas by a heat exchanger and thereafter deep cooling the cooled gas by a refrigerant heat exchanger to a temperature sufficient to achieve a relative humidity at the first membrane in the range of about 40 per cent to about 50 per cent;STEP 7 removing water from the gas stream by passing the cooled gas stream through a second knockout;STEP 8 passing the gas stream from the second knock-out through the recycle heat exchanger of step 2;STEP 9 removing aerosols and liquids in a coalescing filter, then removing oil and sulfur compounds in an adsorption filter, and removing particulate passing from the absorbent filter;STEP 10 mixing gas from the particulate filter with recycle gases received from one or more membranes implemented in one or more subsequent process steps;STEP 11 passing the mixed gases to a first membrane, separating the gas stream into a nonpermeate stream and a permeate stream, discharging the non permeate stream, and passing the permeate stream to a compressor;STEP 12 cooling the gas from the compressor and removing contaminants from the cooled gas in a second coalescing filter, second adsorption filter, and a second particulate filter;STEP 13 passing the cooled gas from the particulate filter to a second membrane, separating the gas stream into a nonpermeate stream and a permeate stream;STEP 14 pressurizing and cooling the nonpermeate stream from the second membrane and recycling it to the inlet of the first membrane;STEP 15 cooling the permeate stream from the second membrane and mixing it with a recycle vapor stream from carbon dioxide storage;STEP 16 pressurizing the cool permeate and recycle stream;STEP 17 cooling and removing water from the stream of step 16;STEP 18 dehydrating the stream in a desiccant dryer;STEP 19 cooling the desiccated gas stream by passing it through first and second recycle gas-gas heat exchanges;STEP 20 passing the cooled, desiccated gas stream through a primary condenser and into and through a distillation column in counter current flow to stripping vapors and carbon dioxide passing upwardly through the distillation column;STEP 21 condensing the gas of step 20, passing the gas from the condenser through a sump and discharging an effluent recycle stream from the top of the sump and a reflux stream from the bottom of the sump;STEP 22 passing the reflux stream into an upper portion of the distillation column;STEP 23 passing the effluent recycle stream through the second and then the first recycle gas-gas heat exchanges;STEP 24 splitting the effluent recycle stream and passing one portion to the desiccant filter for regeneration;STEP 25 passing liquid carbon dioxide from the bottom of the distillation column into a reboiler;STEP 26 generating stripping vapors in the reboiler and passing them into a lower portion of the distillation column;STEP 27 discharging liquid carbon dioxide from one or both of the reboiler and distillation column, cooling the discharge to a temperature below the bubble point, and delivering the cooled liquid carbon dioxide into an insulated storage tank; andSTEP 28 recovering vapors from the storage tank and recycling them to the inlet of the first membrane.
  3. 33. A process for recovering a target gas from a gas stream containing two or more gases, comprising:providing a feed stream containing a mixture of at least a target gas and at least one other gas;delivering the feed stream through a first membrane separator within a first pressure range;directing a first discharge stream containing a higher purity of the target gas than the feed stream from the first membrane separator to a second membrane separator within a second pressure range;recovering from the second membrane separator a second discharge stream containing a relatively higher purity of the target gas than the first discharge stream entering the second membrane separator; andsubstantially maintaining the pressure differential between the feed stream and a discharge stream exiting the first membrane at a level substantially less than the pressure differential between the first discharge stream entering the second membrane and a discharge stream exiting the second membrane.
  4. 45. A process for recovering a target gas from a gas stream containing two or more gases, comprising:providing a feed stream containing a mixture of at least a target gas and at least on other gas;delivering the feed stream through a first membrane separator within a first pressure range;directing a first permeate stream containing a higher purity of the target gas than the feed stream from the first membrane separator to a second membrane separator within a second pressure range;recovering from the second membrane separator a second permeate stream containing a relatively higher purity of the target gas than the first permeate stream; andsubstantially maintaining the pressure differential between the feed stream and the non-permeate stream exiting the first membrane at a level substantially less than the pressure differential between first permeate stream entering the second membrane and the non-permeate stream exiting the second membrane.

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