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US6261433: Electro-chemical deposition system and method of electroplating on substrates

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Filing Information

Inventor(s) Uziel Landau ·
Assignee(s) Applied Materials, Inc. ·
Attorney/Agent(s) Thomason, Moser & Patterson, L.L.P. ·
Primary Examiner Bruce F. Bell ·
Application Number US9295678
Filing date 04/21/1999
Issue date 07/17/2001
Predicted expiration date 04/21/2019
U.S. Classifications 205/96  · 204/230.2  · 205/128  · 205/149  · 205/153  · 205/157  · 204/297.01  · 204/297.03  · 205/123  · 204/230.7  · 204/260  · 204/261  · 204/263  · 204/272  · 204/273  · 204/275.1  · 205/103  ·
International Classifications --
Kind CodeB1
International Classifications 20429701 · 20429703 · 2042751 · 204287 · 204272 · 204273 · 204260 · 204261 · 204263 · 204212 · 204213 · 204218 · 204222 · 204223 · 2042289 · 2042291 · 2042292 · 2042296 · 2042302 · 2042307 · 205 96 · 205103 · 205123 · 205128 · 205149 · 205153 · 205157 · 205291 · 205292 ·
Related U.S. Application DataCROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/082,521, entitled “Electroplating on Substrates,” filed on Apr. 21, 1998.
29 Claims, 8 Drawings


Abstract

The invention provides an apparatus and a method for achieving reliable, consistent metal electroplating or electrochemical deposition onto semiconductor substrates. More particularly, the invention provides uniform and void-free deposition of metal onto metal seeded semiconductor substrates having sub-micron, high aspect ratio features. The invention provides an electrochemical deposition cell comprising a substrate holder, a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface, an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface and an anode electrically connect to an electrolyte. Preferably, a vibrator is attached to the substrate holder to vibrate the substrate in at least one direction, and an auxiliary electrode is disposed adjacent the electrolyte outlet to provide uniform deposition across the substrate surface. Preferably, a periodic reverse current is applied during the plating period to provide a void-free metal layer within high aspect ratio features on the substrate.

Independent Claims | See all claims (29)

  1. 1. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; wherein the substrate holder comprises: i) a vacuum chuck having a substrate support surface; and ii) an elastomer ring disposed around the substrate support surface, the elastomer ring contacting a peripheral portion of the substrate; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; and d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte.
  2. 3. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; wherein the substrate holder comprises: i) a vacuum chuck having a substrate support surface; and ii) a gas bladder disposed around the substrate support surface, the gas bladder adapted to contact a peripheral portion of the substrate; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; and d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte.
  3. 4. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface, wherein the cathode comprises a cathode contact member disposed at a peripheral portion of the substrate plating surface, the cathode contact member having a contact surface adapted to electrically contact the substrate surface, wherein the cathode contact member comprises a radial array of contact pins and a resistor connected in series with each contact pin; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; and d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte.
  4. 6. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface, wherein the electrolyte outlet is defined by a gap between a first surface on the substrate holder extending radially outward from the substrate plating surface and a surface of the electrolyte container; and d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte.
  5. 8. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a control electrode disposed in electrical contact with the electrolyte, the control electrode adapted to provide an adjustable electrical power.
  6. 11. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a vibrator attached to the substrate holder, the vibrator transferring a vibration to the substrate holder.
  7. 13. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a sleeve insert disposed at a top portion of the electrolyte container, the sleeve insert defining the opening of the electrolyte container.
  8. 14. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a flow adjuster wedge disposed at a top portion within the electrolyte container.
  9. 15. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container, b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface: c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface, d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a gas knife to supply a gas flow across the wafer plating surface to remove residual electrolyte.
  10. 16. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a wafer catcher disposed at a top portion within the electrolyte container.
  11. 17. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a reference electrode adapted to monitor the cathode and the anode.
  12. 18. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) a rinsing solution supply selectively connected to the electrolyte inlet.
  13. 19. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate having a substrate plating surface, comprising: a) a substrate holder adapted to hold the substrate in a position wherein the substrate plating surface is exposed to an electrolyte in an electrolyte container; b) a cathode electrically contacting the substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive the substrate plating surface; d) an anode electrically connected to the electrolyte; and e) gas bubble diverting vanes disposed within the electrolyte container to divert gas bubbles toward an electrolyte container sidewall.
  14. 20. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising: 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; and c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface, wherein the electrolyte flows between about 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) to about 15 gpm.
  15. 21. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising: 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; and c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface; wherein the step of applying an electrical power to the cathode and the anode comprises: 1) applying a cathodic current density between about 5 mA/cm2 and about 40 mA/cm2 for about 1 second to about 240 seconds.
  16. 23. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising: 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; and c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface; wherein the step of applying an electrical power to the cathode and the anode comprises: 1) applying a cathodic current density between about 5 mA/cm2 and about 40 mA/cm2 for about 1 second to about 240 seconds; 2) applying a dissolution reverse current between about 5 mA/cm2 and about 80 mA/cm2 for about 0.1 seconds to about 100 seconds; 3) applying a cathodic current density between about 5 mA/cm2 and about 40 mA/cm2 for about 1 seconds to about 240 seconds; and 4) repeating step 2 and step 3.
  17. 24. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising: 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface; d) providing a control electrode in electrical contact with an electrolyte of an electrochemical deposition cell; and e) adjusting the electrical power provided by the control electrode during deposition.
  18. 26. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising; 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface; and d) vibrating a component of the electrochemical deposition cell in one or more directions.
  19. 27. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising: 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface; and d) vibrating a component of the electrochemical deposition cell at a vibrational frequency between about 10 Hz and about 20,000 Hz and a vibrational amplitude between about 0.5 micron and about 100,000 micron.
  20. 28. A method for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) providing an electrochemical deposition cell comprising: 1) a substrate holder; 2) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; 3) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface; and 4) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte; b) applying electrical power to the cathode and the anode; c) flowing an electrolyte to contact the substrate plating surface; d) rotating the substrate holder about a central axis through the substrate.
  21. 29. An apparatus for electrochemical deposition of a metal onto a substrate, comprising: a) a substrate holder comprising: i) a vacuum chuck having a substrate support surface; and ii) an elastomer ring disposed around the substrate support surface, the elastomer ring contacting a peripheral portion of the substrate. b) a cathode electrically contacting a substrate plating surface; c) an electrolyte container having an electrolyte inlet, an electrolyte outlet and an opening adapted to receive a substrate plating surface, wherein the electrolyte outlet is defined by a gap between a first surface extending radially outward from the substrate plating surface and a surface of the electrolyte container; d) an anode electrically connected to an electrolyte, the anode comprising: i) a porous enclosure for flow of an electrolyte therethrough; ii) a metal disposed within the enclosure; and iii) an electrode disposed within the enclosure; e) a control electrode in electrical contact with an electrolyte, the control electrode adapted to provide an adjustable electrical power; and f) a vibrator attached to the substrate holder, the vibrator adapted to transfer a vibration in one or more directions to the substrate holder.

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