Join
today

Boliven PRO is more than just patent search

  • Build and save lists using the powerful Lists feature
  • Analyze and download your search results
  • Share patent search results with your clients

Patents »

US6882051: Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

Share

Filing Information

Inventor(s) Arun Majumdar · Ali Shakouri · Timothy D. Sands · Peidong Yang · Samuel S. Mao · Richard E. Russo · Henning Feick · Eicke R. Weber · Hannes Kind · Michael Huang · Haoquan Yan · Yiying Wu · Rong Fan ·
Assignee(s) The Regents of the University of California ·
Attorney/Agent(s) John P. O'Banion ·
Primary Examiner Michael S. Lebentritt ·
Assistant Examiner Brad Smith ·
Application Number US10112578
Filing date 03/29/2002
Issue date 04/19/2005
Prior Publication Data
Predicted expiration date 04/08/2022
Patent term adjustment 10
U.S. Classifications 257/746  · 257/734  · 257/741  ·
International Classifications --
Kind CodeB2
International Classifications 257734 · 257741 · 257746 · 257749 ·
Related U.S. Application DataCROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application claims priority from U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/280,676 filed on Mar. 30, 2001, incorporated herein by reference, and from U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/349,206 filed on Jan. 15, 2002, incorporated herein by reference.
21 Claims, 23 Drawings


Abstract

One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as “nanowires”, include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

Independent Claims | See all claims (21)

  1. 1. A nanowire, comprising: a first segment of a first material; and a second segment of a second material joined to said first segment; wherein at least one of said segments has a substantially uniform diameter of less than approximately 200 nm; and wherein said nanowire is selected from a population of nanowires having a substantially monodisperse distribution of diameters.
  2. 2. A nanowire, comprising: a first segment of a first material; and a second segment of a second material joined to said first segment; wherein at least one of said segments has a substantially uniform diameter; said nanowire displaying characteristics selected from the group consisting essentially of electronic properties, optical properties, physical properties, magnetic properties and chemical properties that are modified relative to the bulk characteristics of said first and second materials by quantum confinement effects.
  3. 3. A nanowire, comprising: a first segment of a first material; and a second segment of a second material joined to said first segment; wherein at least one of said segments has a substantially uniform diameter; said nanowire having at least one electronic property that varies as a function of diameter of said nanowire.
  4. 5. A nanowire, comprising: a first segment of a substantially crystalline material; and a second segment of a substantially crystalline material joined to said first segment; wherein at least one of said segments has a substantially uniform diameter of less than approximately 200 nm.
  5. 9. A nanowire superlattice structure, comprising: a first segment of a material; a second segment of a material joined to said first segment; and a third segment of a material joined to at least one of said first or second segments; wherein at least two of said segments are longitudinally adjacent; wherein at least two of said segments comprise compositionally different materials; and wherein at least one of said segments has a substantially uniform diameter of less than approximately 200 nm.
  6. 10. A nanowire superlattice structure, comprising: a first segment of a material; a second segment of a material joined to said first segment; and a third segment joined to at least one of said first or second segments; wherein at least two of said segments comprise compositionally different materials; and wherein at least two of said segments are longitudinally adjacent; said nanowire superlattice structure displaying characteristics selected from the group consisting essentially of electronic properties, optical properties, physical properties, magnetic properties and chemical properties that are modified relative to the bulk characteristics of said first and second materials by quantum confinement effects.
  7. 11. A nanowire supertattice structure, comprising: a first segment of a material; a second segment of a material joined to said first segment; and a third segment joined to at least one of said first or second segments; wherein at least two of said segments comprise compositionally different materials; and wherein at least two of said segments are longitudinally adjacent; said nanowire superlattice structure having at least one electronic property that varies as a function of diameter of at least one of said segments.
  8. 13. A nanowire superlattice structure, comprising: a first segment of a substantially crystalline material; a second segment at a substantially crystalline material joined to said first segment; and a third segment of a substantially crystalline material joined to at least one of said first or second segments; wherein at least two of said segments comprise compositionally different materials; wherein at least two of said segments are longitudinally adjacent; and wherein at least one of said segments has a substantially uniform diameter of less than approximately 200 nm.

References Cited

U.S. Patent Documents

Document NumberAssigneesInventorsIssue/Pub Date
US3493431 BELL TELEPHONE LABOR INC Wagner Feb 1970
US3580732 IBM Blakeslee et al. May 1971
US3632405 PHILIPS CORP Knippenberg et al. Jan 1972
US4099986 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Diepers Jul 1978
US5260957 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Hakimi et al. Nov 1993
US5332910 Ltd. Hitachi Haraguchi et al. Jul 1994
US5702822 Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Terui et al. Dec 1997
US5858862 Sony Corporation Westwater et al. Jan 1999
US6225198 The Regents of the University of California Alivisatos et al. May 2001
US6248674 Hewlett-Packard Company Kamins et al. Jun 2001
US6306736 The Regents of the University of California Alivisatos et al. Oct 2001
US20020130311* Lieber et al. Sep 2002

Foreign Patent Documents

Document NumberAssigneesInventorsIssue/Pub Date
EP0548905LTD. HITACHIDec 1992
EP0838865SONY CORPORATIONOct 1997
EP0544408XEROX CORPORATIONJan 2000
EP1100106LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES INC.Oct 2000
* cited by examiner

Other Publications

Zhang, Y. et al.; “Coaxial Nanocable: Silicon Carbide and Silicon Oxide Sheathed with Boron Nitride and Carbon,” Science, vol. 281, pp. 973-975, Aug. 14, 1998.
Hiruma, K. et al., “Self-organized growth of GaAs/InAs heterostructure nanocylinders by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy”, Journal of Crystal Growth, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam. NL, vol. 163, No. 3, Jun. 1, 1996 (Jun. 01, 1996), pp. 226-231, XP000627505 ISSN: 0022-0248.
Kanjanachuchai, S. et al., “Coulomb blockaded in strained-Si nanowires on leaky virtual substrates”, Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 16, No. 2, Feb. 2001 (Feb. 2001), pp. 72-76, XP002209467, London UK.
Haraguchi, K., et al., “Polarization dependence of light emitted from GaAs p-n junctions in quantum wire crystals”, Journal of Applied Physics, American Institute of Physics, New York, US, vol. 75, No. 8, Apr. 15, 1994 (Apr. 15, 1996), pp. 4220-4225, XP000447894 ISSN: 0021-8979.
Givargizov, E. et al., “Fundamental Aspects of VLS Growth”, Journal of Crystal Growth, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, NL, No. 31, 1975, pp. 20-30, XP001073851 ISSN: 0022-0248.
Gaul, David A, et al.; “True Blue Inorganic Optoelectronic Devices,” Advanced Materials, vol. 12, No. 13, p. 935-946, Jul. 5, 2000.
Haase, M.A. et al.; “Blue-Green Laser Diodes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 59, No. 11, pp. 1272-1274, Sep. 9, 1991.
Nakamura, Shuji et al.; “InGaN-Based Multi-Quantum-Well-Structure Laser Diodes,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 35, pp. L74-L75, Jan. 15, 1996.
Cao, H. et al.; “Spatial Confinement of Laser Light in Active Random Media,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, No. 24, pp. 5584-5587, Jun. 12, 2000.
Bagnall, D.M. et al.; “Optically Pumped Lasing of ZnO at Room Temperature,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 70, No. 17, pp. 2230-2232, Apr. 28, 1997.
Yu, P. et al.; “Room-Temperature Gain Spectra and Lasing in Microcrystalline ZnO Thin Films,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 184/185, pp. 601-604, (1998).
Klingshirn, C.; “Properties of the Electron-Hole Plasma in II-VI Semiconductors,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 117, pp. 753-757, (1992).
Kayanuma, Yosuke; “Quantum-Size Effects of Interacting Electrons and Holes in Semiconductor Microcrystals with Spherical Shape,” Physical Review B, vol. 38, No. 14, pp. 9797-9805, Nov. 15, 1988.
Wegscheider, W. et al.; “Lasing from Excitons in Quantum Wires,” Physical Reveiw Letters, vol. 71, No. 24, p. 4071-4074, plus photo page, Dec. 13, 1993.
Haraguchi, Keiichi et al.; “GaAs p-n Junction Formed in Quantum Wire Crystals,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 60, No. 6, pp. 745-747, Feb. 10, 1992.
Duan, Xiangfeng et al.; “Indium Phosphide Nanowires as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices,” Nature, vol. 409, pp. 66-69, Jan. 4, 2001.
Klimov, V.I. et al.; “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science, vol. 290, pp. 314-317, Oct. 13, 2000.
Pavesi, L. et al.; “Optical Gain in Silicon Nanocrystals,” Nature, vol. 408, pp. 440-444, Nov. 23, 2000.
Huang, Michael H. et al.; “Catalytic Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Vapor Transport,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, pp. 113-116, (2001).
Fons, P. et al.; “Uniaxial Locked Epitaxy of ZnO on the a Face of Sapphire,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, No. 12, pp. 1801-1803, Sep. 18, 2000.
Wagner, R. S. and Ellis, W.C.; “Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mechanism of Single Crystal Growth,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 89-90, Mar. 1, 1964.
Givargizov, E.I.; “Fundamental Aspects of VLS Growth,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 31, pp. 20-30, (1975).
Bradshaw, Steven M. and Spicer, John L.; “Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Nitride Particles and Whiskers,” Journal of American Ceramic Society, vol. 82, No. 9, pp. 2293-2300, (1999).
Hu, Jiangtao et al.; “Chemistry and Physics in One Dimension: Synthesis and Properties of Nanowires And Nanotubes,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 32, pp. 435-445, (1999).
Wagner, R.S.; “VLS Mechanism of Crystal Growth,” in Whisker Technology, edited by A.P. Levitt, pp. 47 thru 119, Wiley-Interscience, New York, (1970).
Hiruma, Kenji et al.; “GaAs Free-Standing Quantum-Size Wires,” Journal of Appliced Physics, vol. 74, No. 5, pp. 3162-3171, Sep. 1, 1993.
Haraguchi, K. et al.; “Self-Organized Fabrication of Planar GaAs Nanowhisker Arrays,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 69, No. 3, pp. 386-387, Jul. 15, 1996.
Hiruma, Kenji et al.; “Self-Organized Growth of GaAs/InAs Heterostruicture Nanocylinders by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 163, pp. 226-231, (1996).
Haraguchi, K. et al.; “Polarization Dependence of Light Emitted From GaAs p-n Junctions in Quantum Wire Crystals,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 75, No. 8, pp. 4220-4225, Apr. 15, 1994.
Yazawa, Masamitsu et al.; “Semiconductor Nanowhiskers,” Advanced Materials, vol. 5, No. 7/8, pp. 577-580, (1993).
Hu, Jiangtao et al.; “Chemistry and Physics in One Dimension: Synthesis and Properties of Nanowires and Nanotubes,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 435-445, (1999).
Wong, Eric W. et al.; “Nanobeam Mechanics: Elasticity, Strength, and Toughness of Nanorods and Nanotubes,” Science, vol. 277, pp. 1971-1975, Sep. 26, 1997.
Canham, L.T.; “Silicon Quantum Wire Array Fabrication by Electrochemical and Chemical Dissolution of Waters,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 57, No. 10, pp. 1046-1048, Sep. 3, 1990.
Holmes, Justin D. et al.; “Control of Thickness and Orientation of Solution-Growth Silicon Nanowires,” Science, vol. 287, pp. 1471-1473, Feb. 25, 2000,
Hicks, L.D. and Dresselhaus, M.S.; “Thermoelectric Figure of Merit of a One-Dimensional Conductor,” vol. 47, No. 24, pp. 16-631 thru 16-634, Jun. 15, 1993-II.
Cui, Yi and Lieber, Charles M.; “Functional Nanoscale Electronic Devices Assembled Using Silicon Nanowire Building Blocks,” Science, vol. 291, pp. 851-853, Feb. 2, 2001.
Huang, Michael H. et al.; “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science, vol. 292, pp. 1897-1899, Jun. 8, 2001.
Favier, Frederic et al.; “Hydrogen Sensors and Switches from Electrodeposited Palladium Mesowire Arrays,” Science, vol. 293, pp. 2227-2231, Sep. 21, 2001.
Kovtyukhova, Nina I. et al.; “Layer-By-Layer Assembly of Rectifying Junctions in and on Metal Nanowires,” Journal Physical Chemistry B, vol. 105, No. 37, p. 8762-8769, (2001).
Hu, Jiangtao et al.; “Controlled Growth and Electrical Properties of Heterojunctions of Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Nanowires,” Nature, vol. 399, pp. 48-51, May 6, 1999.
Zhang, Y. et al.; “Heterostructures of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Carbide Nanorods,” Science, vol. 285, pp. 1719-1722, Sep. 10, 1999.
Zhou, Chongwu et al.; “Modulated Chemical Doping of Individual Carbon Nanotubes,” Science, vol. 290, pp. 1552-1555, Nov. 24, 2000.
Markowitz, Paul D. et al.; “Phase Separation in Alx Gal-x As Nanowhiskers Grown by the Solution-Liquid-Solid Mechanism,” Journal of American Chemical Society, vol. 123, pp. 4502-4511, (2001).
Nicewarner-Pena, Sheila R. et al.; “Submicrometer Metallic Barcodes,” Science, vol. 294, pp. 137-141, Oct. 5, 2001.
Wu, Yiying and Yang, Peidong; “Direct Observation of Vapor-Liquid-Solid Nanowire Growth,” Journal of American Chemical Society, vol. 123, pp. 3165-3166, (2001).
Koga, T. et al.; “Carrier Pocket Engineering Applied to ‘Strained’ Si/Ge Superlattices to Design Useful Thermoelectric Materials,” Applied Phyics Letters, vol. 75, No. 16, pp. 2438-2440, Oct. 18, 1999.
Koga, T. et al.; “Experimental Proof-of-Principle Investigation of Enhanced Z3DT in Oriented Si/gE Superlattices,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, No. 10, pp. 1490-1492, Sep. 4, 2000.
Venkatasubramanlan, Rama et al.; “Thin-Film Thermoelectric Devices with High Room-Temperature Figures of Merit,” Nature, vol. 413, pp. 597-602, Oct. 11, 2001.
Wu, Yiying et al.; “Block-By-Block Growth of Single-Crystalline Si/SiGe Superlattice Nanowires,” Submitted to Nano Letters, no known publication date, pp. 1 thru 4, 2002.

Referenced By

Document NumberAssigneeInventorsIssue/Pub Date
US7237429 Nano-Proprietary, Inc. Greg Monty et al. Jul 2007
US7252699 The Arizona Board of Regents Joseph W. Perry et al. Aug 2007
US7362605 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F Pinkerton et al. Apr 2008
US7446030 Shocking Technologies, Inc. Lex Kosowsky Nov 2008
US7570355 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Theodore I. Kamins et al. Aug 2009
US7629532 Sundiode, Inc. James C. Kim et al. Dec 2009
US7095645 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F. Pinkerton et al. Aug 2006
US7217946 Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique David Fraboulet et al. May 2007
US7507987 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sang-Gook Kim et al. Mar 2009
US7617736 California Institute of Technology Hongxing Tang et al. Nov 2009
US7465954 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Theodore I Kamins et al. Dec 2008
US7091120 Nanosys, Inc. Mihai Buretea et al. Aug 2006
US7254151 President & Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Aug 2007
US7344961 Nanosys, Inc. Linda T. Romano et al. Mar 2008
US7422980 Nanosys, Inc. Xiangfeng Duan et al. Sep 2008
US7518283 CJP IP Holdings Ltd. Joseph F. Pinkerton et al. Apr 2009
US7528060 University of Puerto Rico Luis F. Fonseca et al. May 2009
US7620281 President & Fellows of Harvard College Eric Mazur et al. Nov 2009
US7196450 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F Pinkerton et al. Mar 2007
US7468315 Nanosys, Inc. Mihai A. Buretea et al. Dec 2008
US7476596 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Jan 2009
US7105428 Nanosys, Inc. Yaoling Pan et al. Sep 2006
US6979489 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Yicheng Lu et al. Dec 2005
US7501636 The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kyung-ah Son et al. Mar 2009
US7582992 CJP IP Holdings, Ltd. Joseph F. Pinkerton et al. Sep 2009
US7589880 The Trustees of Boston College Krzysztof J. Kempa et al. Sep 2009
US7623746 The Trustees of Boston College Michael J. Naughton et al. Nov 2009
US7345307 Nanosys, Inc. Yaoling Pan et al. Mar 2008
US7262515 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F Pinkerton Aug 2007
US7439560 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Shunsuke Shioya et al. Oct 2008
US7619290 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Nov 2009
US7211464 President & Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. May 2007
US7396696 Dongguk University Industry Academic Cooperation Foundation Hwa-Mok Kim et al. Jul 2008
US7598482 IMEC Anne S. Verhulst et al. Oct 2009
US7199498 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F. Pinkerton et al. Apr 2007
US7421173 President and Fellows of Harvard College Eric Mazur et al. Sep 2008
US7553371 Nanosys, Inc. Robert Dubrow et al. Jun 2009
US7595260 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Sep 2009
US7132677 Dongguk University Hwa-Mok Kim et al. Nov 2006
US7302856 California Institute of Technology Hongxing Tang et al. Dec 2007
US7287412 Nano-Proprietary, Inc. Kwok Ng et al. Oct 2007
US7301199 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Nov 2007
US7434476 Califronia Institute of Technology Hongxing Tang et al. Oct 2008
US7498215 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Morimi Hashimoto et al. Mar 2009
US7544591 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Shashank Sharma et al. Jun 2009
US7102605 Nanosys, Inc. Dave Stumbo et al. Sep 2006
US7129554 President & Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Oct 2006
US7186381 Regents of the University of California Reginald Mark Penner et al. Mar 2007
US7273732 Nanosys, Inc. Yaoling Pan et al. Sep 2007
US7339186 Infineon Technologies AG Hannes Mio et al. Mar 2008
US7339184 Nanosys, Inc Linda T. Romano et al. Mar 2008
US7426025 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Shih-Yuan Wang Sep 2008
US7414325 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F Pinkerton Aug 2008
US7385267 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Jun 2008
US7552645 California Institute of Technology Igor Bargatin et al. Jun 2009
US7148579 Ambient Systems, Inc. Joseph F. Pinkerton et al. Dec 2006
US7367215 Nano-Proprietary, Inc. Greg Monty et al. May 2008
US7634162 The Trustees of Boston College Krzysztof J. Kempa et al. Dec 2009
US7872251 Shocking Technologies, Inc. Lex Kosowsky et al. Jan 2011
US7875480 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Theodore I. Kamins et al. Jan 2011
US7875958 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Zhiyuan Cheng et al. Jan 2011
US7887778 The University of Connecticut Steven Lawrence Suib et al. Feb 2011
US7911009 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Mar 2011
US7910915 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Theodore I Kamins et al. Mar 2011
US7906803 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Shunsuke Shioya et al. Mar 2011
US7902541 International Business Machines Corporation Lidija Sekaric et al. Mar 2011
US7649665 The Trustees of Boston College Krzysztof J. Kempa et al. Jan 2010
US7651944 Nanosys, Inc. Xiangfeng Duan et al. Jan 2010
US7662313 NANOSYS, Inc. Jeffery A. Whiteford et al. Feb 2010
US7666051 The Trustees of Boston College Zhifeng Ren et al. Feb 2010
US7666791 Nanosys, Inc. Shahriar Mostarshed et al. Feb 2010
US7666708 President and Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Feb 2010
US7695644 Shocking Technologies, Inc. Lex Kosowsky et al. Apr 2010
US7701428 Nanosys, Inc. Dave Stumbo et al. Apr 2010
US7705523 Georgia Tech Research Corporation Zhong L. Wang et al. Apr 2010
US7711213 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Shih-Yuan Wang et al. May 2010
US7720326 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Wei Wu et al. May 2010
US7741197 Nanosys, Inc. Xiangfeng Duan et al. Jun 2010
US7754964 The Trustees of Boston College Krysztof J. Kempa et al. Jul 2010
US7762121 Applied Nanotech Holdings, Inc. Kwok Ng et al. Jul 2010
US7767102 Nanosys, Inc. Francesco Lemmi et al. Aug 2010
US7776760 Nanosys, Inc. David Taylor Aug 2010
US7783140 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Shih-Yuan Wang Aug 2010
US7786024 Nanosys, Inc. David P. Stumbo et al. Aug 2010
US7785922 Nanosys, Inc. Virginia Robbins Aug 2010
US7793236 Shocking Technologies, Inc. Lex Kosowsky et al. Sep 2010
US7795686 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Shunsuke Shioya et al. Sep 2010
US7795125 Nanosys, Inc. Mihai A. Buretea et al. Sep 2010
US7803574 Nanosys, Inc. Tejal Desai et al. Sep 2010
US7816655 KLA-Tencor Technologies Corporation Harald F. Hess et al. Oct 2010
US7816700 Seoul Opto Device Co., Ltd. Hwa Mok Kim Oct 2010
US7825491 Shocking Technologies, Inc. Lex Kosowsky Nov 2010
US7834264 The Regents of the University of California Arun Majumdar et al. Nov 2010
US7839028 CJP IP Holding, Ltd. Joseph F. Pinkerton Nov 2010
US7847180 Q1 Nanosystems, Inc. Brian Argo et al. Dec 2010
US7855133 International Business Machines Corporation Ali Afzali-Ardakani et al. Dec 2010
US7858965 President and Fellows of Harvard College Wei Lu et al. Dec 2010
US7081293 General Motors Corporation Anita M. Weiner et al. Jul 2006
US7442575 Texas Christian University Jeffery L. Coffer Oct 2008
US7256466 President & Fellows of Harvard College Charles M. Lieber et al. Aug 2007

Patent Family